Mosquitoes are found throughout the universe.  Typically, they are very annoying; due to their itchy bites. These insects pose grave threats to human beings and have resulted in numerous deaths through the diseases they transmit. The Common Types Of Mosquitoes Are Anopheles, Coquillettidia, and Culex.

a) Anopheles Mosquitoes:-This is the widely known malaria mosquito since it is the major vector of malaria. Unlike other mosquitoes, they rest with their stomach area pointed upwards. They are also considered to transmit heartworms among dogs. They also lay their eggs on still water. The adult is dark-brown with the body divided into a head, thorax, and abdomen. The larvae are also called wrigglers because of their movements. They lie near the water surface as they feed on fungi and bacteria. The pupae are called tumblers because they appear to tumble. They are round and shaped like a comma which makes them easily move.

b) Culex Mosquitoes:-They are medium-sized and brown while the abdomen has white markings. They are part of the house mosquitoes that thrive in urban regions. These mosquitoes start biting as soon as darkness sets in. They do rest around vegetation and structures. They lay their eggs in still water which has collected in ditches, pools, sewage or ponds. They avoid running water, therefore, as a preventative measure; water should not be left to accumulate in containers. This mosquito feeds on amphibians and reptiles. Their posterior abdomens are blunt-shaped. The female ones have unique features; their thorax has scutum and does not have acrostichal setae and the head has flat scales that are posterior to the compound eyes.

c) Coquillettidia Mosquitoes:-These kinds of mosquitoes are large, yellowish and resemble Culex. They attach themselves to aquatic plants for oxygen. The females are always on the watch to attack humans.  They have slender bodies. Their larvae have elongated antennas.

Diseases Transmitted By Mosquitoes

  1. The West Nile Virus: this is a disease transmitted by mosquitoes to people and animals. Those infected with this disease do not show any symptoms.
  2. La Crosse Encephalitis: the tree hole mosquito transmits this viral disease which causes excessive illness among children.
  3. Jamestown Canyon Virus: this viral disease is spread by different kinds of mosquitoes. This disease is however rarely reported.
  4. Malaria: this is a health problem in America. People traveling to different regions are at risk of infection and should, therefore, understand the symptoms and medications of the disease.
  5. Chikungunya: This is a pathogen that is spread by mosquitoes.
    Heartworm:  this is a dreadful: diseases that are brought by roundworms. The worms infect the dogs and foxes through mosquito bites, bearing the worm’s larvae.
  6. Dengue: this is an arboviral disease in Africa, Asia, and America. It rarely causes death; however, the symptoms are uncomfortable. The spread of this disease is linked to adaptation.
  7. Yellow Fever: this disease occurs in the tropic region. In the past year, it has led to the death of millions of people.

Other Harmful Effects

Apart from diseases, mosquitoes are also a nuisance to homes in rural regions. Mosquitoes disrupt recreational functions. In a place with a huge infestation, mosquitoes can harm livestock.

Control

  • Repair the broken windows and close them at dusk to restrict entry of mosquitoes.
  • Remove stagnant water around the animals watering troughs. The livestock troughs should be flashed regularly.
  • Perform a check around sites of construction to ensure there is appropriate grading and backfilling to avoid drainage issues.
  • Perform irrigation on the gardens carefully and ensure water is not left stagnant for several days.
  • Water may be trapped in plastic and canvas papers; check for them and pour.
  • Use insect repellent having DEET or eucalyptus oil to reduce exposure to mosquitoes.
  • Disposal of tins and cans that are not in use and may be holding water.
    While outdoors, wear long-sleeved clothes to prevent mosquito bites.
  • Those traveling should carry along mosquito repellents in their journeys.

Non-Chemical Methods

  1. Mosquito Traps: the devices for trapping mosquitoes like New Jersey light traps.  Some traps mimic mammals through producing heat, moisture and carbon dioxide.
  2. Drainage: draining stagnant water is necessary to destroy the mosquitoes’ habitats. Empty water that has collected in containers such as flower pots, gutters, and buckets should be drained.
  3. Vegetation Management: reducing the vegetation around homes is essential so as to reduce mosquitoes hiding in them.
  4. Mosquito Net: sleep inside a mosquito net. It is made of very small spacing that cannot allow a mosquito to pass through.

Chemical Methods

  1. Insecticides: mosquito control can be achieved through the use of insecticides. They are applied to eliminate larvae and adult mosquitoes.
  2. Space Sprays: Aerosol sprays that contain allethrin are effective in controlling mosquitoes. Space sprays are advantageous since the insects are immediately knocked down and the material needed for treatment is little. However, the disadvantage is that insects will not be controlled for a long time and will still find their way back to the homes. The sprays used should be labeled that they are used for flying insecticides.
  3. Outdoor Control:  in this case ULV foggers are used to provide temporary relief.

Natural Methods

Some of the garden plants act as good mosquito repellants. Geraniums have the natural citronellal which is an insect repellent. Lemon balm also contains the repellent. Nepetalactone has proved to be effective than DEET in repelling mosquitoes. Crushing a mixture of basil, lemon thyme and lemongrass also repels mosquitoes.

If a yard has big water troughs, ponds or regions with stagnant water, use bacillus thuriniensis (BT). It a natural bacterium that will kill larvae and at the same time, it is non-toxic to fish and humans.

Keep backyard chickens. This is another effective way of reducing mosquitoes. Backyard chickens eat pests thus reducing their infestation.

Install an overhead ceiling fan; it will make the room cool and dispel some mosquitoes. Burning citronella candles is also a natural way of controlling mosquitoes; some of the mosquitoes will be burnt. However, this method should be paired with a topical repellent since the candles only keep off mosquitoes near it.

The Advantage Of Having Pest Control Done By A Pest Control Company

  1. Qualified technicians will often resort to pesticides as the last option since it is usually not essential.  Most homeowners would unsuitably use pesticides in instances where other methods suit. The experts ensure a rightful pest control procedure with less use of insecticides and toxins.
  2. The level of illness will reduce in a home; without training, homeowners can use pesticides incorrectly as they try to eliminate pests and this may create illness in the family. Therefore, hiring a qualified technician will reduce the level of illness contracted during the execution of the control measures.
  3. Hiring experts in pest control save money. A lot of funds are lost in a bid to eliminate pests with pesticides in cases where the pests might have developed a resistance to the pesticides. The technicians will not eliminate pests but also educate homeowners on better preventive measures.
  4. Homeowners will experience less itching if they hire an expert. Most of the pests cause itching through their bites. Therefore having the situation handled by an expert will reduce the instances of being bitten.
  5. The home structures will be safe if pest control measures are performed by a pest control company. The pests will chew building structures and only the trained personnel will end this situation as fast as possible.
  6. Assistance provided by a pest control company ensures homeowners do not waste a lot of time trying to do away with the frustrating pests. Much time is usually wasted on control efforts that may seem futile.
  7. Homeowners are in a better position of learning the behavioral characteristics of pests as well as their hiding places from a pest control company. They’ll offer these educational tips at the same time clearing pests from the home.
  8. A local pest control company performs a thorough work of pest control that will leave homeowners at ease; they’ll no longer have to worry about the creepy creatures.

How and Why Mosquitoes Bite

For the millions of years, mosquitoes have been around; their biting skills seem to get better each day. Mosquitoes have several sensors that are adapted to attack their pray

Chemical Sensors:- from a distance of 90feet, mosquitoes are able to sense lactic or carbon dioxide. Mammals release these gases as they breathe. Some chemicals also found in sweat attract mosquitoes. Those people who sweat a little will not be bitten as much as those who sweat more.
Visual Sensors:- when a person wears a cloth contrasting the background, he/she will be easily seen by mosquitoes.
– Heat Sensors:- mosquitoes can detect warmth hence will easily detect the presence of warm-blooded beings in a room.

The female mosquitoes do not suck blood for nutritional values but rather to gain proteins. Proteins and other nutrients help her form eggs.

A mosquito has a needle-like mouth known as a proboscis. It uses this to pierce the skin and also survey for capillaries from which it will suck from. In the process of sucking, she injects saliva to prevent the coagulating off blood. At this point, the mosquito is able to transmit diseases into the bloodstream. Afterward, she sucks out blood and swallows it into her abdomen from where digestion takes place and eggs are produced.

The human body reacts from these enzymes; as if they are invaders. Then the antibodies cause histamine to be produced. This enzyme moves through the bitten region and binds to receptors triggering dilation of the blood vessels. The blood flow is increased and white blood cells are brought in to fight the intruders. In the process, histamine may be released in high quantities causing swelling and itchiness.

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